Baluran National Park is a forest preservation area on the north coast of East Java. The location is in Sumberwaru village, Banyuwangi district, Situbondo (on the east border of Java Island). It has a relatively dry climate and consists of lowland forests, savanna, mangrove forests and hills, with Mount Baluran (1.247 above sea level) as its highest peak.
Baluran National Park is situated at the north-eastern extremity of Java, close to the islands of Bali and Madura. The park is bordered by the Madura Strait to the north, the Bali Strait to the east, the river Bajulmati (Wonorejo village) to the west and the river Klokoran (Sumber Anyar village) to the south. The park is a rough circle, with the extinct volcano. Baluran at its centre. It's total area is 25.000 ha, it consists of five zones, the Main Zone (12.000 ha), the Wilderness Zone (5.537 ha, comprising 1.063 ha water and 4.574 ha land), the Intensive Utilization Zone (800 ha), the Spesific Utilization Zone (5.780 ha), and the Rehabilitation Zone (783 ha).
The park is dominated by forest and savana vegetation. The coastline is formed by irregular peninsulas and bays. Near the coast are living coral areas, sandbanks, and mudflats. The peninsulas are covered with mangroves, while other part of the coastline are covered with swamp forest. The volcano is covered with lowland and upland monsoon forest.
There are 444 species of plant growing in this park, including curious and indigenous species like Widoro Bukol (Ziziphus rotundifolia), Mimba (Azadirachta indica), and Pilang (Acacia leucophloea). These tree species are able to adapt to very arid conditions, remaining green while the plants around them wither. Other plants in the park include Tamarind (Tamarindus indica), Gadung (Dioscorea hispida), Kemiri (Aleurites moluccana), Gebang (Corypha utan), Api-api (Avicennia sp.), Kendal (Cordia obliqua), Manting (Syzygium polyanthum), and Kepuh (Sterculia foetida).
The 26 species of mammal include the Banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus), Asian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus javanicus), Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak muntjak), Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis russa), Panther (Panthera pardus), Lesser Malay Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus pelandoc), Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), and Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus auratus). The Banteng is the mascot of Baluran National Park.
In addition, there are about 155 species of bird, some of them endangered species like the Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus), Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus), Malabar Hornbill (Anthracoceros coronatus conversus), Rhinoceros Hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros silvestris), Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceae), and Lesser Adjutant Stork (Leptoptilos javanicus).
Baluran National Park has a typical Monsoon climate with a long dry season. It is of type F in the Schmid & Fergusson system of climate classification. The temperature varies between 27,2oC and 30,9oC, humidity averages 77 %, wind velocity average 7 knots and the wind direction is influenced by a strong south-east wind. The rainy season lasts from November to Aprril and the dry season from April to October. The highes rainfall is in December and January.
Baluran National Park has a radial water system. The Kacip river flows from the caldera to Labuhan Merak beach. The Klokoran and Bajulmati rivers from the western and southern borders of the park. Many stream beds form in the short wet season, but the water is absorbed in great quantity by the very porous volcanic ash, and after it reaches the hardened underground lava it comes to the surface in form of springs in coastal areas (Popongan, Kelor, Bama, Mesigit, Bilik, Gatel, Semiang and Kepuh), in downhill areas (Talpat spring), in Air Tawar Bay and on the Sedano peninsula. In wet seasons the black soils are least permeable, and water then flows on the surface, forming many pools, particularly in the southern area from Talpat to Bama. In the longn dry periods, those pools are often dry.
Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 279/Menhut-VI/1997, May 23, 1997